3D printing may one day make aspects of medicine a bit like car making, where custom-made parts to be used in surgery are received “just in time”.

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3D Medical chairman Dr Nigel Finch says 3D printing could eliminate the need for hospitals to carry large and expensive supplies of surgical implants.

Instead, parts could be 3D-printed just weeks before they are required.

3D Medical recently developed a 3D-printable and customised plastic and titanium jaw joint that was used to correct a rare jaw deformity in a 32-year-old male patient at Melbourne’s Epworth-Freemasons Hospital.

The 3D-printed corrective implant was made to perfectly fit the patient’s mandible.

Weight-bearing joints for the knees, hips and shoulders could be similarly 3D-printed.

Dr Finch says 3D printing could generate significant savings for hospitals and the health sector, and provide bespoke solutions for patients.

“Using the just-in-time production model sounds a little bit crass when you talk about people (patients), but I think that the manufacturing philosphy is precisely what we’re looking at, Dr Finch told AAP.

Hospitals could place an order for a 3D-printed part as they prepared their surgical schedules.

“That’s the goal that we’d like to get to: help the hospital system not carry inventory on their balance sheet. It frees up more capital to do more meaningful things,” Dr Finch said.

Using custom-made implants would also make operating theatres more efficient, reducing surgery time.

Surgeons would no longer have to use ill-fitting parts that came only in the sizes of small, medium and large, thereby reducing the need for surgeons to alter a patient’s body – such as cutting away bone – so that the part will fit.

Patient trauma, recovery time and physiotherapy needs would be reduced.

Dr Finch said 3D-printing was not only producing medical parts made of plastic and titanium. Small amounts of human tissue and organs have been printed.

A US company, Organovo, has been able to 3D print a very small amount of liver tissue, which it sells to pharmaceutical companies to use in ascertaining the toxicity of early-stage drugs.

A form of skin had also been 3D-printed but the printing so far had not been able to replicate the network of blood vessels and nerves that make skin living tissue.

“It may not be that long before they work out how to do the plumbing (blood vessels) and the feeling (nerves) and when we’ve got that, we can print a whole body,” Dr Finch said.

Dr Finch said 3D Medical is currently considering a few materials that might be suitable in the printing of a substitute for bone that could be used in the repair of major bone breaks.

3D printing can also be employed to produce accurate anatomical models for use in surgical planning.

A surgical team can test their procedure and equipment on the model, making them better prepared for the real thing.

Surgery time could be cut dramatically.

3D printing may also be employed in the treatment of cancer.

3D Medical and Australia’s largest private provider of radiation therapy, Genesis Cancer Care, are considering 3D printing for the manufacture of patient-specific electron beam shields.

The shield helps the radiotherapist target the area of interest and protect the areas that are unaffected by the cancer.

“These have to be made with some precision, and 3D printing of electron beam shields is probably the next thing in our R&D (research and development) pipeline,” Dr Finch said.

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A trainer from the bush, a female rider and a broken down long-shot.

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It sounds like a movie script or a fairytale, but it’s how Australia’s greatest race, the Melbourne Cup, played out at Flemington.

Michelle Payne created history as the first woman jockey to win the Cup, steering 100-1 chance Prince Of Penzance to a half length win, and surprising trainer Darren Weir who’d only hoped for a top 10 finish against the strong international field.

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“I can’t say how grateful I am (to the people who helped me), and I want to say to everyone else, get stuffed, because women can do anything and we can beat the world,” Payne said.

“To think that Darren Weir has given me a go and it’s such a chauvinistic sport, I know some of the owners were keen to kick me off, and (part-owner) John Richards and Darren (Weir) stuck strongly with me.”

Although he is Melbourne’s premier trainer, Weir operates out of stables closer to his country heart in Ballarat and Warrnambool. “I started out wanting to win four Cups,” Weir said.

“The Stawell Cup was first and I won that, the Ballarat Cup came next and then Swan Hill Cup and I won that. “This was the fourth Cup I wanted to win. I don’t think it’s sunk in.

“(And) this horse has been through a lot. He’s had two fetlock operations and a twisted bowel and he’s made it back.

Great win Prince of Penzance and great ride Michelle Payne first woman jockey to win the #MelbourneCup! pic.twitter杭州桑拿会所,/hPxDA8hRX5

— Malcolm Turnbull (@TurnbullMalcolm) November 3, 2015

“He was set for the Moonee Valley Cup and when he ran well in that (second) we thought we’d bring him here and hope for a finish in the top 10.”

Prince Of Penzance became only the fourth 100-1 chance to win the Melbourne Cup in its 155th running.

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Payne, 30, had to push the six-year-old gelding after he came out of gate one slower than she would have liked but soon had him in a better than midfield position with English horse Big Orange leading the pack form Excess Knowledge.

In the run home, the gap opened up for Prince Of Penzance and Payne steered him through, avoiding trouble at the 350m mark when several horses were involved in a scrimmage.

Prince Of Penzance held off Irish horse Max Dynamite ($13) by half a length with Criterion ($19) another three-quarters of a length third. Weir said he couldn’t have taken Payne off.

“Michelle drove me mad about this horse,” he said.

“She’s ridden him in 23 of his 24 starts and travelled to country tracks just to ride him.

“She deserves it.”

Payne, the youngest of 10 children raised on a farm in rural Victoria, felt the win was pre-ordained: “I actually really had a strong feeling I was going to win but I thought ‘ah, don’t be stupid, it’s the Melbourne Cup.

“It turned out exactly how I thought it would.”

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The $5 favourite Fame Game from Japan, was a long way back in the pack and made up a few places to finish 13th.

Trip To Paris, the second favourite at $6, was a gallant fourth but his Ed Dunlop-trained stablemate Red Cadeaux didn’t finish the race and the three-time runner-up was taken to the Werribee veterinary clinic with a suspected fetlock injury.

RELATED READING: Recent winners of the Melbourne Cup

2015 – Prince of Penzance (ridden by Michelle Payne)

2014 – Protectionist (Ryan Moore)

2013 – Fiorente (Damien Oliver)

2012 – Green Moon (Brett Prebble)

2011 – Dunaden (Christoph Lemaire)

2010 – Americain (Gerald Mosse)     

2009 – Shocking (Corey Brown)

2008 – Viewed (Blake Shinn)

2007 – Efficient (Michael Rodd)

2006 – Delta Blues (Yasunari Iwata)

2005 – Makybe Diva (Glen Boss)

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Increasing the GST to 15 per cent and extending it to health services and fresh food would slug Australians $15 billion a year and could drive people to eat more junk food, Labor warns.

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Opposition health spokeswoman Catherine King says raising and extending the consumption tax to fresh food would deliver a “disastrous blow” of more than $9 billion a year.

A 15 per cent GST charge on health would cost sick Australians more than $5 billion a year, she says.

The calculations are based on Treasury figures that show the government would have gained an added $3.5 billion in revenue in 2014-15 if the existing 10 per cent GST had been applied to health.

“With around one million Australians already living with diabetes, a $9.6 billion-a-year hit on healthier foods would make junk food even more attractive, worsening health outcomes and adding to health costs,” Ms King said.

It comes after the Parliamentary Budget Office, at the request of Nationals MP David Gillespie, found raising the GST to 15 per cent and extending it to more goods and services would generate an extra $65.6 billion, for a total take of more than $130 billion, in 2017-18.

Treasurer Scott Morrison has not specifically backed calls for the New Zealand-style GST but says everything is on the table.

The Australian Medical Association has called on Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull to rule out extending the GST to health services, saying it would penalise the country’s poorest and sickest.

The Rural Doctors Association of Australia has warned the move would encourage rural and remote patients to delay visits to the doctor and present at hospital emergency departments instead, placing a bigger burden on the health budget.

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In 1991, Shaka Senghor was 18-years-old when he killed a man in a drug-related dispute.

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“Back then I was angry, emotionally confused, emotionally vulnerable and really just in the space of trying to survive in the inner city of Detroit,” he told SBS Insight.

“I got into a conflict over drug transaction that I refused to make and when the conflict escalated, I decided to shoot multiple times and tragically caused a man’s death.”

He spent 19 years in jail for second degree murder, with seven of those in solitary confinement.

“In the early stages of my incarceration I was very angry, I was very confused. I had a lot of unanswered questions.”

Senghor’s experience transformed his worldview, giving him a new focus and purpose in life. His epiphany came almost halfway through his incarceration in the form of a letter from his son.

“I got a letter from my oldest son who was at the time, around eight or nine and he just talked about what he interpreted as me being in prison was like for him,” Senghor explains.

“It was just a real big wake up call for me to really kind of assess where I had gone wrong in my life and figure out a way to turn things around.”

This was the moment he decided to take responsibility for the man’s death and it was a “no brainer” to dedicate his life to atoning.

“I knew that when I got back to my community that I had a responsibility as a man to work with inner city youth.”

“If I can utilise my voice and my experience, that I could possibly … help some young men and women avoid making the type of decision I made in my youth.”

Now the convicted murderer uses his gift of writing to share the lessons he has learned.

Through the Atonement Project and his work with anti-gun violence organisations, Senghor hopes to inspire hope in at-risk youths.

He now uses his redemption story to help young men and women coming from very tough circumstances navigate through life.

“It was really what drives my work today, because nobody wants to see young children and young people destroy their lives when they have options available to them.”

“I forgave myself some years ago and realised that I didn’t have to walk through the rest of my life carrying a sense of guilt and shame. I’m very mindful of the hurt and the damage that I’ve caused.”

Shaka Senghor appears on Insight’s Making Amends program to be broadcast on Tuesday 3 November at 8.30pm on SBS.

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It seems only fitting recalled Australian batsman Usman Khawaja launches his Test comeback against New Zealand.

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After all, the Black Caps’ last Test win against Australia almost ended Khawaja’s baggy green career.

Or so Khawaja thought.

Khawaja admitted his head was spinning when he was dropped from the Test team for the first time following Australia’s shock seven-run second Test loss to the Black Caps in Hobart back in 2011.

But the long comeback trail and the influence of mentor Darren Lehmann have helped Khawaja put it all in perspective.

Khawaja now appears to have come full circle ahead of the first Test against New Zealand, starting in Brisbane on Thursday.

“When I look back, if we won that game (2011 Hobart Test) I probably wouldn’t have been dropped,” Khawaja said.

“That’s just how life pans out sometimes.

“I did play some mind games with myself after I was dropped the first time, it was tough.

“But those are the times you learn the most.

“You have to look at the big picture. What’s meant to be is meant to be.”

Set to bat at No.3 for a new look Australia in Brisbane, Khawaja has also benefited from his reunion with national coach Lehmann.

NSW-bred Khawaja revitalised his first class career when he linked with Lehmann at Queensland in 2012.

Now he hopes to do the same with his Test career under the man affectionately known as Boof.

“The major reason I came to Queensland was Darren,” Khawaja said.

“It was almost disappointing when he went to the Australian team.

“But I know the boys here have loved him.

“He was a world class cricketer, he understands people, personalities – he is just a great coach.”

Khawaja said Lehmann hadn’t said too much in the Test camp ahead of his comeback – and he wouldn’t have had it any other way.

“That’s Darren. He knows he doesn’t have to (talk),” he said.

Khawaja raised eyebrows when he arrived at Tuesday’s Gabba media session icing his troublesome left knee.

But the elegant left handed batsman said it was nothing to worry about – and he would know.

“I didn’t know too much about knees when I did it (2014 injury) but I am a very inquisitive guy,” said Khawaja ahead of his 10th Test.

“I have looked it up on YouTube and Google, I know everything about knees now – I am a genius.

“I am fine. I am just making sure I tick every box before this first Test.”

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