In 1991, Shaka Senghor was 18-years-old when he killed a man in a drug-related dispute.

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“Back then I was angry, emotionally confused, emotionally vulnerable and really just in the space of trying to survive in the inner city of Detroit,” he told SBS Insight.

“I got into a conflict over drug transaction that I refused to make and when the conflict escalated, I decided to shoot multiple times and tragically caused a man’s death.”

He spent 19 years in jail for second degree murder, with seven of those in solitary confinement.

“In the early stages of my incarceration I was very angry, I was very confused. I had a lot of unanswered questions.”

Senghor’s experience transformed his worldview, giving him a new focus and purpose in life. His epiphany came almost halfway through his incarceration in the form of a letter from his son.

“I got a letter from my oldest son who was at the time, around eight or nine and he just talked about what he interpreted as me being in prison was like for him,” Senghor explains.

“It was just a real big wake up call for me to really kind of assess where I had gone wrong in my life and figure out a way to turn things around.”

This was the moment he decided to take responsibility for the man’s death and it was a “no brainer” to dedicate his life to atoning.

“I knew that when I got back to my community that I had a responsibility as a man to work with inner city youth.”

“If I can utilise my voice and my experience, that I could possibly … help some young men and women avoid making the type of decision I made in my youth.”

Now the convicted murderer uses his gift of writing to share the lessons he has learned.

Through the Atonement Project and his work with anti-gun violence organisations, Senghor hopes to inspire hope in at-risk youths.

He now uses his redemption story to help young men and women coming from very tough circumstances navigate through life.

“It was really what drives my work today, because nobody wants to see young children and young people destroy their lives when they have options available to them.”

“I forgave myself some years ago and realised that I didn’t have to walk through the rest of my life carrying a sense of guilt and shame. I’m very mindful of the hurt and the damage that I’ve caused.”

Shaka Senghor appears on Insight’s Making Amends program to be broadcast on Tuesday 3 November at 8.30pm on SBS.

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The Marshall Islands is calling on Australia to bring forward its carbon emissions reduction target by five years to be in line with the United States.

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Foreign Minister Tony de Brum also wants Australia to pledge “significant” funds to help developing nations like the Marshall Islands adapt to climate change and repair damage.

Mr de Brum believes Australia should be a team player and sit down at December’s United Nations climate change conference in Paris on the side of the Pacific Islands.

Australia is at the back of the developed nations pack with its pledge to slash emissions by 26 to 28 per cent by 2030 on 2005 levels and Mr de Brum has been critical of the goal.

The US has committed to the same targets by 2025 and Mr de Brum urged Australia to match that aim.

“If they move the date from 2030 to 2025 with the same figures, that’s a very good beginning,” he told AAP on Tuesday.

“It’s important that our biggest Pacific island be part of our team and not running around saying that coal is the lifesaver of the world.”

Several government figures, including former prime minister Tony Abbott, have defended coal as “good for humanity” but Pacific nations are calling for a moratorium on new mines.

Mr de Brum’s call for an accelerated target comes after meetings with Opposition Leader Bill Shorten, who is touring the region to focus on climate change and the risks of rising sea levels.

Mr Shorten promised Labor would release more ambitious 2030 targets based on the country’s fair share to limit global warming to two degrees.

“We’ll back in the best science,” Mr Shorten said, after touring what remains of Anebok island, where nothing but a few rocks poke through the rising waters.

The Marshall Islands – a collection of atolls lying close to sea level – is thought to be on the front line of global warming, with residents already feeling the effects of changing weather patterns and inundation.

The nation’s main island, Majuro, stretches about 50 kilometres but much of the atoll is no wider than the length of a football field.

The notion of negotiating in Paris as part of the Pacific Islands team appears unlikely to win over Australia, as the government is firm on the international goal of limiting warming to two degrees.

In September, Australia refused to back a push at the Pacific Islands Forum that global warming should be limited to 1.5 degrees.

An evaluation of the pledges submitted for the UN negotiations shows the world will warm by 2.7 per cent by the end of the century if nations meet their targets.

That is not good enough for the Marshall Islands and Mr de Brum is hoping significant emitters and developed nations such as Australia will shift their positions.

“If we were to take that as gospel we wouldn’t be going to Paris,” he said.

“We would go under, there’s no debate on that issue any more.”

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Graphic evidence of sexual abuse of boys at two prestigious Brisbane schools and repeated failure to report matters to Queensland police has been heard by the Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Abuse.

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Over the next two weeks, 31 witnesses including former Governor-General and former Archbishop of Brisbane Peter Hollingworth, will give evidence about alleged abuse at Brisbane Boys Grammar and St Paul’s College.

Two former employees of the schools – Kevin John Lynch and Gregory Robert Knight – are the focus of the Royal Commission.

The extent of abuse at Brisbane Grammar was revealed after former student Nigel Parodi, allegedly abused by Lynch, shot three Queensland police officers, two in the face, in an inner-Brisbane suburb in 2000.

All three officers survived but after Parodi committed suicide, dozens of former Grammar students approached the school alleging they too had been abused by Lynch.

In an opening statement counsel assisting the commission David Lloyd gave detailed summary of the evidence that would be given.

“Lynch sexually abused a significant number of boys during counselling sessions. The abuse often involved Lynch hypnotising boys, asking them to undress themselves and to masturbate themselves. Lynch also often fondled the boys’ genitals. Lynch told the boys that this was all part of the therapy he was providing. Many of the boys believed him,” Mr Lloyd said.

“Counselling sessions with Lynch were openly referred to as ‘wanking with Skippy’, a reference to Lynch’s nickname ‘Skippy’ which was given to him because he walked with a limp.”

Some former students at St Paul’s allegedly told then headmaster Gilbert Case that “Lynch was spreading their personal information, including the size of their penises”.

Lynch was charged on 22 January 1997 and committed suicide the following day.

At Lynch’s well-attended funeral at St Paul’s there was no mention of his suicide or the charges against him.

The hearing heard Knight was employed at Brisbane Grammar in 1980 and St Paul’s from 1981 to 1984. He had a history of child sexual abuse in South Australia and had been convicted of child sex offences in the Northern Territory.

Counsel assisting said there will be a particular emphasis on what information was known by the senior staff of Brisbane Grammar and St Paul’s about both abusers’ behaviour.

“This case study will explore the issue of what information about finding of misconduct and the like against teachers is shared between agencies which monitor, and regulate the employment of teachers in the States and Territories of Australia,” Mr Lloyd said. 

Mr Lloyd gave repeated examples where students who complained or protested at their treatment by the abusers were told they were lying and warned off going to the police.

The Royal Commission was told Knight avoided dismissal from Grammar by offering to resign and was given a statement of service.

Knight was allegedly defended by the former headmaster of St Paul’s Gilbert Case, which Mr Case denies.

Mr Case accepted Knight’s resignation from St Paul’s instead of dismissing him after further allegations at a school camp in 1984 and wrote him a glowing reference.

Mr Case was employed in 2001 by then Archbishop of Brisbane Peter Hollingworth as executive director of the Anglican Schools Office of the Diocese of Brisbane.

In a press release in 2000, Mr Hollingworth said, “A worrying aspect is that children who were subjected to misconduct did not complain to those in authority or question the actions of the perpetrator… I am advised that the school knew nothing about the misconduct before the councillor committed suicide.”

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It seems only fitting recalled Australian batsman Usman Khawaja launches his Test comeback against New Zealand.

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After all, the Black Caps’ last Test win against Australia almost ended Khawaja’s baggy green career.

Or so Khawaja thought.

Khawaja admitted his head was spinning when he was dropped from the Test team for the first time following Australia’s shock seven-run second Test loss to the Black Caps in Hobart back in 2011.

But the long comeback trail and the influence of mentor Darren Lehmann have helped Khawaja put it all in perspective.

Khawaja now appears to have come full circle ahead of the first Test against New Zealand, starting in Brisbane on Thursday.

“When I look back, if we won that game (2011 Hobart Test) I probably wouldn’t have been dropped,” Khawaja said.

“That’s just how life pans out sometimes.

“I did play some mind games with myself after I was dropped the first time, it was tough.

“But those are the times you learn the most.

“You have to look at the big picture. What’s meant to be is meant to be.”

Set to bat at No.3 for a new look Australia in Brisbane, Khawaja has also benefited from his reunion with national coach Lehmann.

NSW-bred Khawaja revitalised his first class career when he linked with Lehmann at Queensland in 2012.

Now he hopes to do the same with his Test career under the man affectionately known as Boof.

“The major reason I came to Queensland was Darren,” Khawaja said.

“It was almost disappointing when he went to the Australian team.

“But I know the boys here have loved him.

“He was a world class cricketer, he understands people, personalities – he is just a great coach.”

Khawaja said Lehmann hadn’t said too much in the Test camp ahead of his comeback – and he wouldn’t have had it any other way.

“That’s Darren. He knows he doesn’t have to (talk),” he said.

Khawaja raised eyebrows when he arrived at Tuesday’s Gabba media session icing his troublesome left knee.

But the elegant left handed batsman said it was nothing to worry about – and he would know.

“I didn’t know too much about knees when I did it (2014 injury) but I am a very inquisitive guy,” said Khawaja ahead of his 10th Test.

“I have looked it up on YouTube and Google, I know everything about knees now – I am a genius.

“I am fine. I am just making sure I tick every box before this first Test.”

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Graphic evidence of sexual abuse of boys at two prestigious Brisbane schools and repeated failure to report matters to Queensland police has been heard by the Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Abuse.

苏州半永久眼线

Over the next two weeks, 31 witnesses including former Governor-General and former Archbishop of Brisbane Peter Hollingworth, will give evidence about alleged abuse at Brisbane Boys Grammar and St Paul’s College.

Two former employees of the schools – Kevin John Lynch and Gregory Robert Knight – are the focus of the Royal Commission.

The extent of abuse at Brisbane Grammar was revealed after former student Nigel Parodi, allegedly abused by Lynch, shot three Queensland police officers, two in the face, in an inner-Brisbane suburb in 2000.

All three officers survived but after Parodi committed suicide, dozens of former Grammar students approached the school alleging they too had been abused by Lynch.

In an opening statement counsel assisting the commission David Lloyd gave detailed summary of the evidence that would be given.

“Lynch sexually abused a significant number of boys during counselling sessions. The abuse often involved Lynch hypnotising boys, asking them to undress themselves and to masturbate themselves. Lynch also often fondled the boys’ genitals. Lynch told the boys that this was all part of the therapy he was providing. Many of the boys believed him,” Mr Lloyd said.

“Counselling sessions with Lynch were openly referred to as ‘wanking with Skippy’, a reference to Lynch’s nickname ‘Skippy’ which was given to him because he walked with a limp.”

Some former students at St Paul’s allegedly told then headmaster Gilbert Case that “Lynch was spreading their personal information, including the size of their penises”.

Lynch was charged on 22 January 1997 and committed suicide the following day.

At Lynch’s well-attended funeral at St Paul’s there was no mention of his suicide or the charges against him.

The hearing heard Knight was employed at Brisbane Grammar in 1980 and St Paul’s from 1981 to 1984. He had a history of child sexual abuse in South Australia and had been convicted of child sex offences in the Northern Territory.

Counsel assisting said there will be a particular emphasis on what information was known by the senior staff of Brisbane Grammar and St Paul’s about both abusers’ behaviour.

“This case study will explore the issue of what information about finding of misconduct and the like against teachers is shared between agencies which monitor, and regulate the employment of teachers in the States and Territories of Australia,” Mr Lloyd said. 

Mr Lloyd gave repeated examples where students who complained or protested at their treatment by the abusers were told they were lying and warned off going to the police.

The Royal Commission was told Knight avoided dismissal from Grammar by offering to resign and was given a statement of service.

Knight was allegedly defended by the former headmaster of St Paul’s Gilbert Case, which Mr Case denies.

Mr Case accepted Knight’s resignation from St Paul’s instead of dismissing him after further allegations at a school camp in 1984 and wrote him a glowing reference.

Mr Case was employed in 2001 by then Archbishop of Brisbane Peter Hollingworth as executive director of the Anglican Schools Office of the Diocese of Brisbane.

In a press release in 2000, Mr Hollingworth said, “A worrying aspect is that children who were subjected to misconduct did not complain to those in authority or question the actions of the perpetrator… I am advised that the school knew nothing about the misconduct before the councillor committed suicide.”

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Jason Nightingale admits New Zealand are hurting after their first Test loss to England, but is delighted they will have little time to lick their wounds.

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The Kiwis moved camp to London on Monday to begin their preparations for Saturday’s second Test at Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park and the St George Illawarra winger believes the short-turnaround can be beneficial for the tourists as they seek to set up a series decider in Wigan.

“It’s probably ideal coming off a loss,” said Nightingale, whose side let slip a 10-0 lead to go down 26-12 in Hull on Sunday. “I know I personally enjoy playing as soon as a I can after a loss.

“It’s not a lot of time to lick your wounds and the less time you spend doing that the better it is.

“There’s a lot to play for. Saturday will be huge so we need to do everything we can to keep the series alive.”

The St George Illawarra winger, who has scored 16 tries in his 26 appearances for the Kiwis, warns England that his team are guaranteed to improve as their tour progresses.

“We will improve a lot,” he said.

“We executed a lot of things we were trying to do in the first half at Hull and I thought we were unlucky not to be in the lead at half-time, but it was unfortunate the way we played in that second half because it wasn’t good enough.

“They got a bit of momentum and we weren’t able to shut them down. We got on the back foot and, once we were down by eight, we started playing worse. We acted like we were a lot further behind on the scoreboard.”

The Kiwis went on an open-top bus tour of the London sights on Tuesday morning and will hold an open training session at Harrow School on Wednesday.

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It seems only fitting recalled Australian batsman Usman Khawaja launches his Test comeback against New Zealand.

苏州半永久眼线

After all, the Black Caps’ last Test win against Australia almost ended Khawaja’s baggy green career.

Or so Khawaja thought.

Khawaja admitted his head was spinning when he was dropped from the Test team for the first time following Australia’s shock seven-run second Test loss to the Black Caps in Hobart back in 2011.

But the long comeback trail and the influence of mentor Darren Lehmann have helped Khawaja put it all in perspective.

Khawaja now appears to have come full circle ahead of the first Test against New Zealand, starting in Brisbane on Thursday.

“When I look back, if we won that game (2011 Hobart Test) I probably wouldn’t have been dropped,” Khawaja said.

“That’s just how life pans out sometimes.

“I did play some mind games with myself after I was dropped the first time, it was tough.

“But those are the times you learn the most.

“You have to look at the big picture. What’s meant to be is meant to be.”

Set to bat at No.3 for a new look Australia in Brisbane, Khawaja has also benefited from his reunion with national coach Lehmann.

NSW-bred Khawaja revitalised his first class career when he linked with Lehmann at Queensland in 2012.

Now he hopes to do the same with his Test career under the man affectionately known as Boof.

“The major reason I came to Queensland was Darren,” Khawaja said.

“It was almost disappointing when he went to the Australian team.

“But I know the boys here have loved him.

“He was a world class cricketer, he understands people, personalities – he is just a great coach.”

Khawaja said Lehmann hadn’t said too much in the Test camp ahead of his comeback – and he wouldn’t have had it any other way.

“That’s Darren. He knows he doesn’t have to (talk),” he said.

Khawaja raised eyebrows when he arrived at Tuesday’s Gabba media session icing his troublesome left knee.

But the elegant left handed batsman said it was nothing to worry about – and he would know.

“I didn’t know too much about knees when I did it (2014 injury) but I am a very inquisitive guy,” said Khawaja ahead of his 10th Test.

“I have looked it up on YouTube and Google, I know everything about knees now – I am a genius.

“I am fine. I am just making sure I tick every box before this first Test.”

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Nathan Lyon is relishing the chance to take down Brendon McCullum, likening the challenge to that posed by Kevin Pietersen.

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Lyon’s record at the Gabba is an impressive20 wickets from four Tests at an average of 23.20.

Yet since making his Test debut in 2011, so many of the offspinner’s trips to Brisbane have coincided with calls for an all-pace attack.

Those years are over.

No longer is Lyon’s place under question – he’s now a leader and an automatic selection.

And when Steve Smith and Darren Lehmann are plotting plans for New Zealand’s destructive skipper McCullum you can be sure Lyon will feature prominently.

“I can’t wait. I’m approaching it very similar to Kevin Pietersen,” Lyon said on the eve of the first Test, which starts on Thursday.

“They seem to not like spinners very much.

“It’s a massive challenge.

“They want to try and hit you out of the attack and it provides chances.”

Lyon accepted it was a battle he won’t win every time.

“There’s going to be the odd occasion that he may get me and hit me out of the ground,” he said.

“He’s a world-class batter, an exciting batter for the game.”

Left-armer Mitchell Starc nominated hard-hitting McCullum and talented first drop Kane Williamson as the key wickets for the hosts.

“We’re quite an aggressive group and we’ll definitely be targeting those guys who are probably their two biggest weapons with the bat,” Starc said.

“A bit like the World Cup when we quietened them down when we got rid of McCullum, if we can get rid of those guys early they could really struggle.”

Starc noted Williamson was dangerous in a different way.

“He can bat for a long time and has probably scored a lot of their runs in the last little bit,” he said.

Meanwhile, Lyon suggested Australia’s change in captain would have little impact on his tactics or approach.

“I’ve played a lot of games under him already. We won a Shield together when he was captain,” he said.

“So I’ve already spent a lot of time with him and have been lucky for that.

“I’m really good mates with him and just happy he’s got the job and that I can play a role under him.”

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Patients who have lost part of their skull from trauma or surgery could regrow their own bone using stem cells, according to biomedical engineers at Royal Perth Hospital.

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Dr Alan Kop and his colleagues believe that using stem cells on a 3D-printed bioceramic insert will act as a scaffold and help the body grow skull bone in its place.

“We’re helping the process by putting stem cells on to the ceramic which will signal to the patient’s own bone that they need to lay bone down there in the defect,” he said.

Dr Kop said the bioceramic was made from similar material to bone such as calcium phosphate so it would be harmlessly resorbed by the body.

“We’re also following international studies and what other people have done as well so we know that we’re not doing something completely outrageous,” he said.

“We’re following literature and other people’s leads in the area.”

But the RPH team believes it is the first to use stem cells to encourage bone to eventually replace the strong, but brittle bioceramic.

Titanium has also been used, but Dr Kop said it would eventually need to be replaced and could be a source of infection.

He said 3D printing and other technological advancements had made creating the skull inserts possible.

“The precision is really important and to date people have made these ceramics like they do traditionally, like they have done for hundreds of years,” Dr Kop said.

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“Just recently the company that we’re working with in Vienna has been able to make ceramics super accurately, so less than 100 microns tolerance, and that allows us to print exactly the shape that we want for the patient.”

Three-dimensional printing is also carried out at Royal Perth Hospital to create plastic models that surgeons use to familiarise themselves with a patient.

Dr David Morrison uses CT scans of patients to create the models as well as the missing pieces of skull that are made in Vienna and then combined with the model in Perth.

“Surgeons are very hands-on people,” he said.

“Obviously they are very good at interpreting CT data and x-rays and things like that, but if you hand them a model of a patient’s anatomy they go ‘Ah, it’s very easy to see what’s going on here,’ and they very much like that experience.

“And the great thing about the models that we make here is that they are sterilisable so they can be taken into theatre so the surgeon can go from working on the patient to looking at the model and back and forth between the two.”

Dr Morrison said the advancements in CT scanning, 3D printing and computing were saving time and money as well as helping patients.

“It’s amazing how far the technology has come from tracing out the slices of CTs, and tracing them out in Perspex and joining them together to make a model to going to a milling process where the implant is milled out of a solid block to going to a 3D-printed process,” he said.

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“It’s much easier and faster and the great thing about having them in the hospital is we can get a very quick turnaround.

“The surgeon can request something and it can be ready for them to see and touch the next day.”

As for growing bone through a bioceramic scaffold, the team said it would take years to prove it was successful, but they were hopeful it could lead to building more complicated bone structures like jaws and long bones.

A trial will start with human patients next year.

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The Paralympic gold medallist was freed on parole last month less than a year into a five-year sentence for the “culpable homicide” of Reeva Steenkamp, who he killed on Valentine’s Day 2013.

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Pistorius himself did not attend the half-day Supreme Court hearing into his highly-charged case, which has prompted a fierce debate in South Africa, and accusations from some rights groups that the white track star got preferential treatment.

Members of the ruling ANC party’s Women’s League attended the session and told reporters that Pistorius had been let out too soon and should have his conviction upgraded to murder, which has a minimum 15-year sentence.

“We are here for Reeva’s family and the state,” the League’s Gautain province spokeswoman, Jacqui Mofokeng, said.

Prosecutors argued that high court Judge Thokozile Masipa had made legal errors when she decided not to convict Pistorius of the more serious charge of murder last year.

The five Supreme Court judges said they would give their ruling at a later date, without specifying when. Legal experts say could convict Pistorius of murder themselves, order a retrial or reject the prosecution’s appeal, legal experts have said, and ther judgement could take weeks.

State prosecutors said they would aim to show that the high court approached the circumstantial evidence incorrectly and excluded relevant evidence.

“The court ignored the most important circumstantial evidence that would make the respondent’s version … impossible,” chief state prosecutor Gerrie Nel said.

Lead defence attorney Barry Roux said it was unfair to say that the court had ignored evidence. “She did not make errors in law, she may or may not have committed factual errors,” Roux said.

Steenkamp’s mother June, who last week said she did not want retribution, attended the session in Bloemfontein, 400 km (250 miles) southwest of Johannesburg, but did not make a statement.

“The family feels it is inappropriate to comment on this matter while the Appeal Court deliberates,” said Anneliese Burgess, the Pistorius’ family spokeswoman.

Pistorius, dubbed “Blade Runner” because of the carbon fibre prosthetic blades he uses to compete, has denied deliberately killing his girlfriend, saying he mistook her for an intruder at his home.

Prosecutors said Pistorius intended to kill Steenkamp, who they said fled to a toilet during a row. Pistorius shot through the door four times, hitting her.

At the original trial in September last year, Judge Masipa ruled that the state had failed to prove intent or “dolus eventualis”, a legal concept that centres on a person being held responsible for the foreseeable consequences of their actions.

The athlete, whose lower legs were amputated when he was a baby, was freed two weeks ago in line with sentencing guidelines that say non-dangerous prisoners should spend only a sixth of a custodial sentence behind bars.

He has not been seen in public since then and is under house arrest that confines him to his uncle’s home in a wealthy Pretoria suburb for the duration of his sentence.

South Africa has one of the world’s highest rates of violent crime.

 

(Additional reporting by Dinky Mkhize in Bloemfontein and Mfuneko Toyana in Johannesburg; Writing by James Macharia; Editing by Andrew Heavens)

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