Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu used his annual United Nations address on Thursday to launch an all-out assault on the historic nuclear deal with Iran, warning that his country would never let the Islamic Republic join the atomic weapons club.

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Speaking at the yearly gathering of world leaders at the UN General Assembly, Netanyahu reiterated Israeli criticism of a deal between Iran and major world powers aimed at curbing Tehran’s nuclear program.

He said that, once international sanctions are lifted, “unleashed and unmuzzled, Iran will go on the prowl.”

Israel, Netanyahu said, would never allow Iran “to break in, to sneak in, or to walk into the nuclear weapons club.”

Israel, which experts and diplomats say has the only nuclear arsenal in the Middle East, has repeatedly warned it is prepared to use military force to prevent Iran from acquiring atomic weapons. Tehran denies wanting nuclear arms and insists its nuclear program is peaceful.

U.S. President Barack Obama’s administration has vigorously defended the July 14 nuclear agreement with Iran against criticism from Republicans in Congress, who tried unsuccessfully to kill the deal, and Israel, describing it as the best way to avoid a new war in the Middle East.

Obama’s already strained relations with Netanyahu deteriorated further in the months before the July nuclear deal because of the Israeli leader’s forceful campaign against it.

During Netanyahu’s speech, Washington was represented by U.S. Ambassador Samantha Power’s deputy, David Pressman, and U.S. Ambassador to Israel Daniel Shapiro. Power and Secretary of State John Kerry are both in New York, but Power’s spokeswoman, Hagar Chemali, said they had to join a video conference call with Obama that ended up coinciding with the Israeli speech.

Netanyahu pulled no punches. “We see a world celebrating this bad deal, rushing to embrace and do business with a regime openly committed to our destruction,” he said.

The Israeli leader held up a copy of the latest book by Iranian Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei that he said was a “400-page screed detailing his plan to destroy the state of Israel.”

Diplomatic sources have said that Israel and Iran’s regional rival, Saudi Arabia, have been discussing how to respond to the nuclear deal and their fear that the lifting of sanctions, expected in the coming months, will embolden Iran to pursue a more aggressive foreign policy in the Middle East.

Without naming countries, Netanyahu said Israel was in touch with Arab states about Iran.

“Israel is working closely with our Arab peace partners to address our common security challenges from Iran and also the security challenges from ISIL (Islamic State) and others,” he said.

Most of Netanyahu’s 43-minute speech was focused on the threat posed by Iran. But toward the end, he responded to Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas’ U.N. speech on Wednesday, in which Abbas said recent Israeli security actions at the Al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem could ignite a religious war.

Netanyahu told the General Assembly that Abbas should stop “spreading lies about Israel’s alleged intentions on the Temple Mount,” and return to direct negotiations to secure peace between the Israelis and Palestinians.

“Temple Mount,” where Al-Aqsa is located, is the Israeli term for the location. It is one of the holiest sites in Islam and Judaism.

Abbas had accused Israel of undermining U.S. attempts at brokering peace, though Netanyahu placed the blame on the Palestinians.

Netanyahu also accused the General Assembly and the U.N. system as a whole of engaging in incessant, unjustified “Israel-bashing.” Twice during his speech – once at the beginning and again in the middle – he silently stared at the 193-nation General Assembly with an angry look on his face.

His second staredown with the General Assembly lasted for 45 seconds, coming after Netanyahu accused the assembly of maintaining “deafening silence” in the face of Iranian threats to destroy Israel.

The prime minister also made clear that Israel would continue to use military force to repel attacks from Syria and to prevent the Iranian-backed Lebanese militant group Hezbollah, which is fighting in Syria alongside government forces, from acquiring key weapons.

“Israel will continue to respond forcefully to any attacks against it from Syria,” Netanyahu said, adding that it would also “prevent the transfer of strategic weapons to Hezbollah from and through Syrian territory.”

 

(Additional reporting by Parisa Hafezi, Michelle Nichols and David Brunnstrom; Writing by Louis Charbonneau and Michelle Nichols; Editing by Jonathan Oatis and Grant McCool)

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Eight years ago England bounced back from a 36-0 pool stage humiliation by South Africa to stun Australia in the quarter-finals while in 2012 it was a tough November series that had the doubters wondering about the wisdom of appointing Lancaster.

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Less than a year into the post, his fledgling England side had beaten Fiji well but lost to Australia and South Africa — for the third time in five months — and faced an All Blacks team on a roll.

Steve Hansen’s side had won 12 and drawn one of their games since winning the World Cup and had just hammered Scotland, Italy and Wales, averaging 42 points a game.

England, however, delivered one of their finest performances in recent years as, in front of a disbelieving Twickenham crowd, they ran the All Blacks ragged in a 38-21 victory, their biggest ever win over them and still their only one in 15 attempts since 2003.

“It’s a huge game and we respect the quality of the team we a are playing but we have beaten them in the last two games,” Lancaster said on Thursday of the Pool A fixture England almost certainly need to win to stay in the tournament.

“It reminds me of after we’d played South Africa back in 2012. We got some criticism there but the following week we came out and beat New Zealand.

“It was a similar scenario then when the All Blacks came into town and that’s the feeling we’ve got here this week.

“The immediate over-riding message (after last week’s Wales defeat) was to ‘get up and get on with it’. We can’t feel sorry for ourselves. The boys responded brilliantly to the review and by Monday evening they were ready to play.

“There are a lot of things to play out over the next two weeks.”

One of those could well be Lancaster’s long-term future. His initial contract was extended to the 2020 World Cup a year ago but should he become the first coach to fail to get England out of the pool phase, there is a strong possibility that he might walk away.

Lancaster, who has often spoken about how he is also building towards the 2019 World Cup in Japan, was reluctant to discuss anything beyond Saturday.

“You can’t spend your time thinking about or the future — you just have to nail down what’s needed to win this game,” he said.

“It’s a must-win game, the stakes are huge and there’s no hiding away from where the accountability lies.”

(Editing by Ed Osmond)

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Jayashri Kulkarni, Monash University

“It’s that time of the month – stay away from her!”

The process of shedding the uterine lining with vaginal bleeding every month has an obvious reproductive focus, but it has also long been linked with changes to mood and behaviour.

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Unfortunately, this has often been an attempt to consign women to a “biologically” determined place of inferior mental functioning.

In recent times, we have learnt more about the connections between the “reproductive” or gonadal hormones and the brain, and how they affect not only women but men as well.

Gonadal hormones (oestrogen, progesterone and testosterone) are produced by the gonads (the ovaries and testes) in response to other precursor hormones found in the pituitary gland and other brain areas. These gonadal hormones impact brain chemistry and circuitry, and hence influence emotions, mood and behaviour.

Women’s hormones

Oestrogen appears to be a “protective” agent in the brain. This may in part explain why some women feel worse, in terms of their mental state, in the low-oestrogen phase of their monthly cycle.

 

A ‘classic’ 28 day cycle – though many women have shorter or longer cycles. Tefi/Shutterstock

 

Oestrogen appears to have direct impacts on dopamine and serotonin, the key brain chemicals associated with the development of depression and psychosis. In fact, animal and clinical studies show that administering oestradiol (the most potent form of oestrogen) can improve symptoms of psychosis and depression.

The concept of PMS (premenstrual syndrome) has its believers and non-believers. But essentially, there is a group of women who experience significant mental and physical symptoms in the low-oestrogen phase of their cycle every month.

Then there are women with crushing depression once per month that is known as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). PMDD is a serious, real depression that can rob a woman of her functioning every month. The tricky part is that it’s not always exactly the week before bleeding, nor does it last exactly a week since many women do not have the “classic” 28-day cycle with ovulation at day 14, and bleeding for five days. If life were that simple!

The impact of gonadal hormones on mood is apparent at many other life stages. Around puberty, a time of major hormonal change, many girls experience various mood swings and other changes in mental health. Some women who take certain types of the combined oral contraceptive experience depressive symptoms with irritability, loss of enjoyment and even suicidal thoughts.

Postnatal depression and psychosis are key mental illnesses related to childbirth and have a major hormonal component to the onset and course of illness. This is thought to be triggered by the sudden, rapid drop in the high levels of pregnancy hormones shortly after birth.

During the transition to menopause, women experience major hormonal shifts. At this time, they are 14 times more likely than usual to experience depression. This is known as perimenopausal depression. It affects women differently than other types of depression, causing anger, irritability, poor concentration, memory difficulties, low self-esteem, poor sleep and weight gain.

 

Hormones can influence our moods at different stages of life Martin Novak/杭州桑拿,shutterstock杭州桑拿会所,

 

Perimenopausal depression isn’t well recognised and is often poorly treated with standard antidepressant therapies. Women with this type of depression generally respond better to hormone treatments, but the link between depression and hormones is not often made.

It’s also important to note that trauma and violence can lead to chronically elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol, causing significant mental ill health at any time in a woman’s life. High cortisol levels have huge impacts on many brain regions, resulting in rage, suicidal thoughts, obesity and infertility.

There is a great deal of variation in the effects of hormone shifts on mood and behaviour. Some women are very sensitive to small shifts in gonadal hormones; others are not.

Men’s hormones

Recent research investigating cognition in men suggests that, just like in women, gonadal hormones influence mood and behaviour. In particular, low levels of testosterone can lead to an age-related condition called andropause.

Andropause is sometimes described as the “male menopause”. This is not strictly accurate since unlike female fertility, male fertility does not end abruptly with a fixed hormone decline. Andropause is caused by a significant decline in testosterone levels to below the normal range for young men. This can result in erectile problems, diminished libido, decreased muscle strength and decreased bone mass.

To complicate matters, testosterone is converted to oestradiol (the most potent form of oestrogen) in men. Altered testosterone/oestradiol ratios can cause problems with memory function, depression, irritability, sleep, fatigue and occasionally even hot flushes.

There is controversy about how much of these changes are a normal part of ageing. Many other factors such as obesity, diabetes and excessive alcohol consumption can also cause low testosterone levels. So andropause should not be viewed as a disease, but as a clinical syndrome with a great deal of variability.

 

Testosterone levels reduce with age. carballo/Shutterstock

 

In some men, testosterone-replacement has been used successfully to treat andropause. But this needs to be done under strict medical supervision because of the many potential side effects including prostate problems, elevated cholesterol and increased rage.

A great deal more research is required in both men and women on the role of gonadal hormones and mental health. But the era of splitting the mind from the body should be long gone.

This article is part of an occasional series, Chemical Messengers, on hormones and the body.

Jayashri Kulkarni receives funding from the NHMRC, ARC, several pharmaceutical companies for clinical trials research. This article is independently written and has no source of funding and no conflict of interest.

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3D printing may one day make aspects of medicine a bit like car making, where custom-made parts to be used in surgery are received “just in time”.

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3D Medical chairman Dr Nigel Finch says 3D printing could eliminate the need for hospitals to carry large and expensive supplies of surgical implants.

Instead, parts could be 3D-printed just weeks before they are required.

3D Medical recently developed a 3D-printable and customised plastic and titanium jaw joint that was used to correct a rare jaw deformity in a 32-year-old male patient at Melbourne’s Epworth-Freemasons Hospital.

The 3D-printed corrective implant was made to perfectly fit the patient’s mandible.

Weight-bearing joints for the knees, hips and shoulders could be similarly 3D-printed.

Dr Finch says 3D printing could generate significant savings for hospitals and the health sector, and provide bespoke solutions for patients.

“Using the just-in-time production model sounds a little bit crass when you talk about people (patients), but I think that the manufacturing philosphy is precisely what we’re looking at, Dr Finch told AAP.

Hospitals could place an order for a 3D-printed part as they prepared their surgical schedules.

“That’s the goal that we’d like to get to: help the hospital system not carry inventory on their balance sheet. It frees up more capital to do more meaningful things,” Dr Finch said.

Using custom-made implants would also make operating theatres more efficient, reducing surgery time.

Surgeons would no longer have to use ill-fitting parts that came only in the sizes of small, medium and large, thereby reducing the need for surgeons to alter a patient’s body – such as cutting away bone – so that the part will fit.

Patient trauma, recovery time and physiotherapy needs would be reduced.

Dr Finch said 3D-printing was not only producing medical parts made of plastic and titanium. Small amounts of human tissue and organs have been printed.

A US company, Organovo, has been able to 3D print a very small amount of liver tissue, which it sells to pharmaceutical companies to use in ascertaining the toxicity of early-stage drugs.

A form of skin had also been 3D-printed but the printing so far had not been able to replicate the network of blood vessels and nerves that make skin living tissue.

“It may not be that long before they work out how to do the plumbing (blood vessels) and the feeling (nerves) and when we’ve got that, we can print a whole body,” Dr Finch said.

Dr Finch said 3D Medical is currently considering a few materials that might be suitable in the printing of a substitute for bone that could be used in the repair of major bone breaks.

3D printing can also be employed to produce accurate anatomical models for use in surgical planning.

A surgical team can test their procedure and equipment on the model, making them better prepared for the real thing.

Surgery time could be cut dramatically.

3D printing may also be employed in the treatment of cancer.

3D Medical and Australia’s largest private provider of radiation therapy, Genesis Cancer Care, are considering 3D printing for the manufacture of patient-specific electron beam shields.

The shield helps the radiotherapist target the area of interest and protect the areas that are unaffected by the cancer.

“These have to be made with some precision, and 3D printing of electron beam shields is probably the next thing in our R&D (research and development) pipeline,” Dr Finch said.

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A trainer from the bush, a female rider and a broken down long-shot.

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It sounds like a movie script or a fairytale, but it’s how Australia’s greatest race, the Melbourne Cup, played out at Flemington.

Michelle Payne created history as the first woman jockey to win the Cup, steering 100-1 chance Prince Of Penzance to a half length win, and surprising trainer Darren Weir who’d only hoped for a top 10 finish against the strong international field.

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“I can’t say how grateful I am (to the people who helped me), and I want to say to everyone else, get stuffed, because women can do anything and we can beat the world,” Payne said.

“To think that Darren Weir has given me a go and it’s such a chauvinistic sport, I know some of the owners were keen to kick me off, and (part-owner) John Richards and Darren (Weir) stuck strongly with me.”

Although he is Melbourne’s premier trainer, Weir operates out of stables closer to his country heart in Ballarat and Warrnambool. “I started out wanting to win four Cups,” Weir said.

“The Stawell Cup was first and I won that, the Ballarat Cup came next and then Swan Hill Cup and I won that. “This was the fourth Cup I wanted to win. I don’t think it’s sunk in.

“(And) this horse has been through a lot. He’s had two fetlock operations and a twisted bowel and he’s made it back.

Great win Prince of Penzance and great ride Michelle Payne first woman jockey to win the #MelbourneCup! pic.twitter杭州桑拿会所,/hPxDA8hRX5

— Malcolm Turnbull (@TurnbullMalcolm) November 3, 2015

“He was set for the Moonee Valley Cup and when he ran well in that (second) we thought we’d bring him here and hope for a finish in the top 10.”

Prince Of Penzance became only the fourth 100-1 chance to win the Melbourne Cup in its 155th running.

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Payne, 30, had to push the six-year-old gelding after he came out of gate one slower than she would have liked but soon had him in a better than midfield position with English horse Big Orange leading the pack form Excess Knowledge.

In the run home, the gap opened up for Prince Of Penzance and Payne steered him through, avoiding trouble at the 350m mark when several horses were involved in a scrimmage.

Prince Of Penzance held off Irish horse Max Dynamite ($13) by half a length with Criterion ($19) another three-quarters of a length third. Weir said he couldn’t have taken Payne off.

“Michelle drove me mad about this horse,” he said.

“She’s ridden him in 23 of his 24 starts and travelled to country tracks just to ride him.

“She deserves it.”

Payne, the youngest of 10 children raised on a farm in rural Victoria, felt the win was pre-ordained: “I actually really had a strong feeling I was going to win but I thought ‘ah, don’t be stupid, it’s the Melbourne Cup.

“It turned out exactly how I thought it would.”

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The $5 favourite Fame Game from Japan, was a long way back in the pack and made up a few places to finish 13th.

Trip To Paris, the second favourite at $6, was a gallant fourth but his Ed Dunlop-trained stablemate Red Cadeaux didn’t finish the race and the three-time runner-up was taken to the Werribee veterinary clinic with a suspected fetlock injury.

RELATED READING: Recent winners of the Melbourne Cup

2015 – Prince of Penzance (ridden by Michelle Payne)

2014 – Protectionist (Ryan Moore)

2013 – Fiorente (Damien Oliver)

2012 – Green Moon (Brett Prebble)

2011 – Dunaden (Christoph Lemaire)

2010 – Americain (Gerald Mosse)     

2009 – Shocking (Corey Brown)

2008 – Viewed (Blake Shinn)

2007 – Efficient (Michael Rodd)

2006 – Delta Blues (Yasunari Iwata)

2005 – Makybe Diva (Glen Boss)

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Increasing the GST to 15 per cent and extending it to health services and fresh food would slug Australians $15 billion a year and could drive people to eat more junk food, Labor warns.

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Opposition health spokeswoman Catherine King says raising and extending the consumption tax to fresh food would deliver a “disastrous blow” of more than $9 billion a year.

A 15 per cent GST charge on health would cost sick Australians more than $5 billion a year, she says.

The calculations are based on Treasury figures that show the government would have gained an added $3.5 billion in revenue in 2014-15 if the existing 10 per cent GST had been applied to health.

“With around one million Australians already living with diabetes, a $9.6 billion-a-year hit on healthier foods would make junk food even more attractive, worsening health outcomes and adding to health costs,” Ms King said.

It comes after the Parliamentary Budget Office, at the request of Nationals MP David Gillespie, found raising the GST to 15 per cent and extending it to more goods and services would generate an extra $65.6 billion, for a total take of more than $130 billion, in 2017-18.

Treasurer Scott Morrison has not specifically backed calls for the New Zealand-style GST but says everything is on the table.

The Australian Medical Association has called on Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull to rule out extending the GST to health services, saying it would penalise the country’s poorest and sickest.

The Rural Doctors Association of Australia has warned the move would encourage rural and remote patients to delay visits to the doctor and present at hospital emergency departments instead, placing a bigger burden on the health budget.

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In 1991, Shaka Senghor was 18-years-old when he killed a man in a drug-related dispute.

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“Back then I was angry, emotionally confused, emotionally vulnerable and really just in the space of trying to survive in the inner city of Detroit,” he told SBS Insight.

“I got into a conflict over drug transaction that I refused to make and when the conflict escalated, I decided to shoot multiple times and tragically caused a man’s death.”

He spent 19 years in jail for second degree murder, with seven of those in solitary confinement.

“In the early stages of my incarceration I was very angry, I was very confused. I had a lot of unanswered questions.”

Senghor’s experience transformed his worldview, giving him a new focus and purpose in life. His epiphany came almost halfway through his incarceration in the form of a letter from his son.

“I got a letter from my oldest son who was at the time, around eight or nine and he just talked about what he interpreted as me being in prison was like for him,” Senghor explains.

“It was just a real big wake up call for me to really kind of assess where I had gone wrong in my life and figure out a way to turn things around.”

This was the moment he decided to take responsibility for the man’s death and it was a “no brainer” to dedicate his life to atoning.

“I knew that when I got back to my community that I had a responsibility as a man to work with inner city youth.”

“If I can utilise my voice and my experience, that I could possibly … help some young men and women avoid making the type of decision I made in my youth.”

Now the convicted murderer uses his gift of writing to share the lessons he has learned.

Through the Atonement Project and his work with anti-gun violence organisations, Senghor hopes to inspire hope in at-risk youths.

He now uses his redemption story to help young men and women coming from very tough circumstances navigate through life.

“It was really what drives my work today, because nobody wants to see young children and young people destroy their lives when they have options available to them.”

“I forgave myself some years ago and realised that I didn’t have to walk through the rest of my life carrying a sense of guilt and shame. I’m very mindful of the hurt and the damage that I’ve caused.”

Shaka Senghor appears on Insight’s Making Amends program to be broadcast on Tuesday 3 November at 8.30pm on SBS.

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It seems only fitting recalled Australian batsman Usman Khawaja launches his Test comeback against New Zealand.

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After all, the Black Caps’ last Test win against Australia almost ended Khawaja’s baggy green career.

Or so Khawaja thought.

Khawaja admitted his head was spinning when he was dropped from the Test team for the first time following Australia’s shock seven-run second Test loss to the Black Caps in Hobart back in 2011.

But the long comeback trail and the influence of mentor Darren Lehmann have helped Khawaja put it all in perspective.

Khawaja now appears to have come full circle ahead of the first Test against New Zealand, starting in Brisbane on Thursday.

“When I look back, if we won that game (2011 Hobart Test) I probably wouldn’t have been dropped,” Khawaja said.

“That’s just how life pans out sometimes.

“I did play some mind games with myself after I was dropped the first time, it was tough.

“But those are the times you learn the most.

“You have to look at the big picture. What’s meant to be is meant to be.”

Set to bat at No.3 for a new look Australia in Brisbane, Khawaja has also benefited from his reunion with national coach Lehmann.

NSW-bred Khawaja revitalised his first class career when he linked with Lehmann at Queensland in 2012.

Now he hopes to do the same with his Test career under the man affectionately known as Boof.

“The major reason I came to Queensland was Darren,” Khawaja said.

“It was almost disappointing when he went to the Australian team.

“But I know the boys here have loved him.

“He was a world class cricketer, he understands people, personalities – he is just a great coach.”

Khawaja said Lehmann hadn’t said too much in the Test camp ahead of his comeback – and he wouldn’t have had it any other way.

“That’s Darren. He knows he doesn’t have to (talk),” he said.

Khawaja raised eyebrows when he arrived at Tuesday’s Gabba media session icing his troublesome left knee.

But the elegant left handed batsman said it was nothing to worry about – and he would know.

“I didn’t know too much about knees when I did it (2014 injury) but I am a very inquisitive guy,” said Khawaja ahead of his 10th Test.

“I have looked it up on YouTube and Google, I know everything about knees now – I am a genius.

“I am fine. I am just making sure I tick every box before this first Test.”

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In 1991, Shaka Senghor was 18-years-old when he killed a man in a drug-related dispute.

杭州桑拿

“Back then I was angry, emotionally confused, emotionally vulnerable and really just in the space of trying to survive in the inner city of Detroit,” he told SBS Insight.

“I got into a conflict over drug transaction that I refused to make and when the conflict escalated, I decided to shoot multiple times and tragically caused a man’s death.”

He spent 19 years in jail for second degree murder, with seven of those in solitary confinement.

“In the early stages of my incarceration I was very angry, I was very confused. I had a lot of unanswered questions.”

Senghor’s experience transformed his worldview, giving him a new focus and purpose in life. His epiphany came almost halfway through his incarceration in the form of a letter from his son.

“I got a letter from my oldest son who was at the time, around eight or nine and he just talked about what he interpreted as me being in prison was like for him,” Senghor explains.

“It was just a real big wake up call for me to really kind of assess where I had gone wrong in my life and figure out a way to turn things around.”

This was the moment he decided to take responsibility for the man’s death and it was a “no brainer” to dedicate his life to atoning.

“I knew that when I got back to my community that I had a responsibility as a man to work with inner city youth.”

“If I can utilise my voice and my experience, that I could possibly … help some young men and women avoid making the type of decision I made in my youth.”

Now the convicted murderer uses his gift of writing to share the lessons he has learned.

Through the Atonement Project and his work with anti-gun violence organisations, Senghor hopes to inspire hope in at-risk youths.

He now uses his redemption story to help young men and women coming from very tough circumstances navigate through life.

“It was really what drives my work today, because nobody wants to see young children and young people destroy their lives when they have options available to them.”

“I forgave myself some years ago and realised that I didn’t have to walk through the rest of my life carrying a sense of guilt and shame. I’m very mindful of the hurt and the damage that I’ve caused.”

Shaka Senghor appears on Insight’s Making Amends program to be broadcast on Tuesday 3 November at 8.30pm on SBS.

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The Marshall Islands is calling on Australia to bring forward its carbon emissions reduction target by five years to be in line with the United States.

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Foreign Minister Tony de Brum also wants Australia to pledge “significant” funds to help developing nations like the Marshall Islands adapt to climate change and repair damage.

Mr de Brum believes Australia should be a team player and sit down at December’s United Nations climate change conference in Paris on the side of the Pacific Islands.

Australia is at the back of the developed nations pack with its pledge to slash emissions by 26 to 28 per cent by 2030 on 2005 levels and Mr de Brum has been critical of the goal.

The US has committed to the same targets by 2025 and Mr de Brum urged Australia to match that aim.

“If they move the date from 2030 to 2025 with the same figures, that’s a very good beginning,” he told AAP on Tuesday.

“It’s important that our biggest Pacific island be part of our team and not running around saying that coal is the lifesaver of the world.”

Several government figures, including former prime minister Tony Abbott, have defended coal as “good for humanity” but Pacific nations are calling for a moratorium on new mines.

Mr de Brum’s call for an accelerated target comes after meetings with Opposition Leader Bill Shorten, who is touring the region to focus on climate change and the risks of rising sea levels.

Mr Shorten promised Labor would release more ambitious 2030 targets based on the country’s fair share to limit global warming to two degrees.

“We’ll back in the best science,” Mr Shorten said, after touring what remains of Anebok island, where nothing but a few rocks poke through the rising waters.

The Marshall Islands – a collection of atolls lying close to sea level – is thought to be on the front line of global warming, with residents already feeling the effects of changing weather patterns and inundation.

The nation’s main island, Majuro, stretches about 50 kilometres but much of the atoll is no wider than the length of a football field.

The notion of negotiating in Paris as part of the Pacific Islands team appears unlikely to win over Australia, as the government is firm on the international goal of limiting warming to two degrees.

In September, Australia refused to back a push at the Pacific Islands Forum that global warming should be limited to 1.5 degrees.

An evaluation of the pledges submitted for the UN negotiations shows the world will warm by 2.7 per cent by the end of the century if nations meet their targets.

That is not good enough for the Marshall Islands and Mr de Brum is hoping significant emitters and developed nations such as Australia will shift their positions.

“If we were to take that as gospel we wouldn’t be going to Paris,” he said.

“We would go under, there’s no debate on that issue any more.”

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Graphic evidence of sexual abuse of boys at two prestigious Brisbane schools and repeated failure to report matters to Queensland police has been heard by the Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Abuse.

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Over the next two weeks, 31 witnesses including former Governor-General and former Archbishop of Brisbane Peter Hollingworth, will give evidence about alleged abuse at Brisbane Boys Grammar and St Paul’s College.

Two former employees of the schools – Kevin John Lynch and Gregory Robert Knight – are the focus of the Royal Commission.

The extent of abuse at Brisbane Grammar was revealed after former student Nigel Parodi, allegedly abused by Lynch, shot three Queensland police officers, two in the face, in an inner-Brisbane suburb in 2000.

All three officers survived but after Parodi committed suicide, dozens of former Grammar students approached the school alleging they too had been abused by Lynch.

In an opening statement counsel assisting the commission David Lloyd gave detailed summary of the evidence that would be given.

“Lynch sexually abused a significant number of boys during counselling sessions. The abuse often involved Lynch hypnotising boys, asking them to undress themselves and to masturbate themselves. Lynch also often fondled the boys’ genitals. Lynch told the boys that this was all part of the therapy he was providing. Many of the boys believed him,” Mr Lloyd said.

“Counselling sessions with Lynch were openly referred to as ‘wanking with Skippy’, a reference to Lynch’s nickname ‘Skippy’ which was given to him because he walked with a limp.”

Some former students at St Paul’s allegedly told then headmaster Gilbert Case that “Lynch was spreading their personal information, including the size of their penises”.

Lynch was charged on 22 January 1997 and committed suicide the following day.

At Lynch’s well-attended funeral at St Paul’s there was no mention of his suicide or the charges against him.

The hearing heard Knight was employed at Brisbane Grammar in 1980 and St Paul’s from 1981 to 1984. He had a history of child sexual abuse in South Australia and had been convicted of child sex offences in the Northern Territory.

Counsel assisting said there will be a particular emphasis on what information was known by the senior staff of Brisbane Grammar and St Paul’s about both abusers’ behaviour.

“This case study will explore the issue of what information about finding of misconduct and the like against teachers is shared between agencies which monitor, and regulate the employment of teachers in the States and Territories of Australia,” Mr Lloyd said. 

Mr Lloyd gave repeated examples where students who complained or protested at their treatment by the abusers were told they were lying and warned off going to the police.

The Royal Commission was told Knight avoided dismissal from Grammar by offering to resign and was given a statement of service.

Knight was allegedly defended by the former headmaster of St Paul’s Gilbert Case, which Mr Case denies.

Mr Case accepted Knight’s resignation from St Paul’s instead of dismissing him after further allegations at a school camp in 1984 and wrote him a glowing reference.

Mr Case was employed in 2001 by then Archbishop of Brisbane Peter Hollingworth as executive director of the Anglican Schools Office of the Diocese of Brisbane.

In a press release in 2000, Mr Hollingworth said, “A worrying aspect is that children who were subjected to misconduct did not complain to those in authority or question the actions of the perpetrator… I am advised that the school knew nothing about the misconduct before the councillor committed suicide.”

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It seems only fitting recalled Australian batsman Usman Khawaja launches his Test comeback against New Zealand.

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After all, the Black Caps’ last Test win against Australia almost ended Khawaja’s baggy green career.

Or so Khawaja thought.

Khawaja admitted his head was spinning when he was dropped from the Test team for the first time following Australia’s shock seven-run second Test loss to the Black Caps in Hobart back in 2011.

But the long comeback trail and the influence of mentor Darren Lehmann have helped Khawaja put it all in perspective.

Khawaja now appears to have come full circle ahead of the first Test against New Zealand, starting in Brisbane on Thursday.

“When I look back, if we won that game (2011 Hobart Test) I probably wouldn’t have been dropped,” Khawaja said.

“That’s just how life pans out sometimes.

“I did play some mind games with myself after I was dropped the first time, it was tough.

“But those are the times you learn the most.

“You have to look at the big picture. What’s meant to be is meant to be.”

Set to bat at No.3 for a new look Australia in Brisbane, Khawaja has also benefited from his reunion with national coach Lehmann.

NSW-bred Khawaja revitalised his first class career when he linked with Lehmann at Queensland in 2012.

Now he hopes to do the same with his Test career under the man affectionately known as Boof.

“The major reason I came to Queensland was Darren,” Khawaja said.

“It was almost disappointing when he went to the Australian team.

“But I know the boys here have loved him.

“He was a world class cricketer, he understands people, personalities – he is just a great coach.”

Khawaja said Lehmann hadn’t said too much in the Test camp ahead of his comeback – and he wouldn’t have had it any other way.

“That’s Darren. He knows he doesn’t have to (talk),” he said.

Khawaja raised eyebrows when he arrived at Tuesday’s Gabba media session icing his troublesome left knee.

But the elegant left handed batsman said it was nothing to worry about – and he would know.

“I didn’t know too much about knees when I did it (2014 injury) but I am a very inquisitive guy,” said Khawaja ahead of his 10th Test.

“I have looked it up on YouTube and Google, I know everything about knees now – I am a genius.

“I am fine. I am just making sure I tick every box before this first Test.”

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Graphic evidence of sexual abuse of boys at two prestigious Brisbane schools and repeated failure to report matters to Queensland police has been heard by the Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Abuse.

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Over the next two weeks, 31 witnesses including former Governor-General and former Archbishop of Brisbane Peter Hollingworth, will give evidence about alleged abuse at Brisbane Boys Grammar and St Paul’s College.

Two former employees of the schools – Kevin John Lynch and Gregory Robert Knight – are the focus of the Royal Commission.

The extent of abuse at Brisbane Grammar was revealed after former student Nigel Parodi, allegedly abused by Lynch, shot three Queensland police officers, two in the face, in an inner-Brisbane suburb in 2000.

All three officers survived but after Parodi committed suicide, dozens of former Grammar students approached the school alleging they too had been abused by Lynch.

In an opening statement counsel assisting the commission David Lloyd gave detailed summary of the evidence that would be given.

“Lynch sexually abused a significant number of boys during counselling sessions. The abuse often involved Lynch hypnotising boys, asking them to undress themselves and to masturbate themselves. Lynch also often fondled the boys’ genitals. Lynch told the boys that this was all part of the therapy he was providing. Many of the boys believed him,” Mr Lloyd said.

“Counselling sessions with Lynch were openly referred to as ‘wanking with Skippy’, a reference to Lynch’s nickname ‘Skippy’ which was given to him because he walked with a limp.”

Some former students at St Paul’s allegedly told then headmaster Gilbert Case that “Lynch was spreading their personal information, including the size of their penises”.

Lynch was charged on 22 January 1997 and committed suicide the following day.

At Lynch’s well-attended funeral at St Paul’s there was no mention of his suicide or the charges against him.

The hearing heard Knight was employed at Brisbane Grammar in 1980 and St Paul’s from 1981 to 1984. He had a history of child sexual abuse in South Australia and had been convicted of child sex offences in the Northern Territory.

Counsel assisting said there will be a particular emphasis on what information was known by the senior staff of Brisbane Grammar and St Paul’s about both abusers’ behaviour.

“This case study will explore the issue of what information about finding of misconduct and the like against teachers is shared between agencies which monitor, and regulate the employment of teachers in the States and Territories of Australia,” Mr Lloyd said. 

Mr Lloyd gave repeated examples where students who complained or protested at their treatment by the abusers were told they were lying and warned off going to the police.

The Royal Commission was told Knight avoided dismissal from Grammar by offering to resign and was given a statement of service.

Knight was allegedly defended by the former headmaster of St Paul’s Gilbert Case, which Mr Case denies.

Mr Case accepted Knight’s resignation from St Paul’s instead of dismissing him after further allegations at a school camp in 1984 and wrote him a glowing reference.

Mr Case was employed in 2001 by then Archbishop of Brisbane Peter Hollingworth as executive director of the Anglican Schools Office of the Diocese of Brisbane.

In a press release in 2000, Mr Hollingworth said, “A worrying aspect is that children who were subjected to misconduct did not complain to those in authority or question the actions of the perpetrator… I am advised that the school knew nothing about the misconduct before the councillor committed suicide.”

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